Blackwater is the [[pollution]] produced from [[Coal preparation plant|coal preparation]].
It contains copious amounts of [[Hazardous waste|hazardous substances]], including [[carcinogen]]ic compounds and [[heavy metals]]. Blackwater is permanently [[Coal slurry impoundment|impounded]] in [[toxic waste]] facilities, as it cannot be [[...|processed]] into a form that can be returned to the [[natural environment]]. Coal is an essential resource for energy and electricity, but the aftermath of its preparation method results in the formation of . The more coal is filtered and screened from rocks and minerals, the higher its efficiency and value.
== Coal slurry ==[[Coal slurry]] is a fluid produced by washing coal with water and chemicals prior to shipping the coal to market. This waste product cannot be recycled, or broken down into usable substances, and is a major cause of concern, because storage procedures may not be environmentally sound over a long period of time. Coal slurry, harms the marine life and aquatic animals, as well as causes air pollution. Components of Coal Slurry like [[Carcinogenic]] compounds and heavy metals are permanently stored in toxic waste facilities because they are hardly transformed into a biodegradable natural form. Mankind acts of dumping the hazardous substance into a body of water or attempting to execute the waste by cremating it, all come on the account of harming the natural state of the environment, and the health of humans.
== Overview ==
In order for coal to be ready to use, it has to go through a coal preparation plant. The extracted coal from underground or mountain formations goes through a process of screening. It is washed off from rocks, residues and sediments. The coal preparation plants are designed to yield a manageable quality of coal to meet the contract specifications and requirements that are set out by the standards and quality control commissions. A considerably clean lump of coal is tested for ash content, sulfuric level, calorific value and moisturization content. Coal goes through different circuit levels depending on the quality yielded. The main objective is to decrease the ash content and improve the [[maceral composition]] of the final clean product. Coal that is used for heating and energy is usually not thoroughly assessed, while coal that is used for electricity goes through an intensified line of purification. Despite the coal’s contribution as a rich source of energy and electricity, the accumulation of coal slurry pursues long-term harmful effects on the environment. It is a byproduct of coal mining and preparation that is in a form of solid waste, typically composed of dirt, sludge and rocks. The composition of coal slurry makes it almost impossible to decompose or biodegrade. Because the nature of the waste is ineffective as a reusable form of energy, it is used to mold a dam between two mountains, and then the slurry is placed behind the dam and impounded in the ground. The mixture of coal slurry and water creates liquid, solid and hazardous wastes that seep into the ground, evaporate into the air or are dumped into bodies of water. Coal slurry contains a large number of highly abrasive and corrosive minerals that have been washed and leached out of coal and rocks. The slurry also includes the infused chemicals that were used in the preparation cycle making it a viscous form of hazardous compounds. Some of these chemicals are [[Acrylamide]], [[Butyl benzyl phthalate]], [[Hexachlorobenzene]], [[Naphthalene]], [[Chhlorophenyl phenyl ether]], and [[Dichlorobenzidine]]. Heavy metals that are included in Coal slurry are , [[Arsenic]], [[Lead]] and [[Nickel]].
Since coal slurry is difficult to store, or dissociate, it is dumped into water systems by pipelines and progressive cavity pumps . The lethal coal slurry turns the water into Blackwater, causing discoloration and low dissolved oxygen levels ( ), which drastically damages animal life. Blackwater changes the natural temperature of the water and the carbon levels, making it difficult for aquatic life to flourish. Aquatic animals rely on oxygen to breathe (aerobic ), a state of hypoxia or low level of dissolved oxygen strives to kill lots of the fish and sea life. A large number of native fish die, and Murray crayfish, shrimps and yabbies’ are observed to go near the surface or the shore to grasp any form of oxygen causing them to die. Blackwater also causes fish to leave their natural habitat and migrate to areas where oxygen is readily available affecting the temporary food chain of that particular part of the water system. Migration can also make it hard for fish to find their food and nutrition niche causing them to slowly die. Increased levels of carbon in the water can also cause the formation of radioactive chemicals in the water causing a dysfunction in the reproductive system of fish, which results into mutant fish. Fish can also lose the ability to feed because of visual impairment or the ability to reproduce and lay eggs. The change in water temperature can cause the water to easily evaporate in warm seasons, which decreases the water level and affects the sea life of aquatic animals and water plants that are always near the surface. High temperatures of water can make the environment favorable for bacterial growth like Escherichia coli, which can be found in fish and later affect humans who consume that fish. Blackwater in water bodies is also considered as a large threat to the irrigation and agricultural systems, as water used for irrigation can be used to water fruits, vegetables and wheat. Blackwater can also seep into the soil, reducing soil nutrients that are an essential key for living organisms. The secondary effect happens when humans consume those Blackwater affected products, and get sick.