The city is named for [[...|Daniel Greysolon, Le Sieur du Luth]], the first known European explorer of the area.
== History ===== Pre-founding ===[[File:Hombres ojibwe.jpg|thumb|Ojibwe people in the nineteenth century]]
The [[Anishinaabe]], also known as the [[Ojibwe]] or [[Chippewa]], have inhabited the Lake Superior region for over five hundred years and were preceded by the [[Lakota people|Dakota]], [[Fox (tribe)|]], [[Menominee]], Nipigon, [[Noquet]] and [[Gros Ventres]]. After the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe made themselves the middle-men between the French [[fur trade]]rs and other Native peoples. They soon became the dominant Indian nation in the region: they forced out the Dakota [[Sioux]] and Fox and won a victory against the [[Iroquois]] west of in 1662. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores.refrefref For both the Ojibwe and the Dakota, interaction with Europeans during the contact period revolved around the fur trade and related activities. A series of treaties executed between 1837 and 1889 expropriated vast areas of tribal lands for the use of Euro-Americans and relegated the Native American peoples to a number of small reservations.ref
23 lines hidden (3859 characters)
=== Permanent settlement ===[[Image:Minnesota Point.jpg|thumb|right|Minnesota Point from the hill above Duluth in 1875]]
[[Image:Chester Terrace-Duluth.jpg|thumb|[[Chester Terrace]], built in 1890]]
Interest in the area was piqued in the 1850s as rumors of [[copper mining]] began to circulate. A government land survey in 1852, followed by a treaty with local tribes in 1854, secured wilderness for gold-seeking explorers, sparked a "[[land run|land rush]]," and led to the development of [[iron ore]] mining in the area.ref
Around the same time, newly constructed [[channel (geography)|channels]] and [[canal lock|locks]] in the East permitted large ships to access the area. A road connecting Duluth to the [[Minneapolis–St. Paul|Twin Cities]] was also constructed. Eleven small towns on both sides of the [[Saint Louis River]] were formed, establishing Duluth's roots as a city.
By 1857, copper resources became scarce and the area's economic focus shifted to [[timber|timber harvesting]]. A nationwide financial crisis caused nearly three-quarters of the city's early pioneers to leave.
The opening of the canal at in 1855 and the recently announced coming of the railroads had made Duluth the only port with access to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Soon the lumber industry, railroads and mining were all growing so quickly that the influx of workers could hardly keep up with demand and storefronts popped up almost overnight. By 1868 business in Duluth was really booming. In a [[Fourth of July]] speech Dr. Thomas Preston Foster, founder of the first newspaper in Duluth, coined the expression "The Zenith City of the Unsalted Seas".