Helmuth von Pannwitz (14 October 1898 – 16 January 1947) was a [[Germany|German]] [[general]] who distinguished himself as a [[cavalry]] officer during the [[World War I|First]] and the [[World War II|Second World Wars]]. Later he became Lieutenant General of the [[Wehrmacht]] and Supreme [[Ataman]] of the [[...|XV. Kosaken-Kavallerie-Korps]]. He was executed in Moscow for war crimes in 1947 of which he has been rehabilitated by the military prosecutor in Moscow in April 1996 almost fifty years after his violent death. The revocation of the Red [[kangaroo court]]'s conviction of Pannwitz was itself overturned in June 2001.
== Early life ==
Pannwitz was born into a family of [[Kingdom of Prussia|Prussian]] nobility on his father's estate Botzanowitz (today [[Bodzanowice]]), [[Province of Silesia|Silesia]], near Rosenberg (today [[Olesno]]), now part of Poland but directly on the German-Russian border of that time. His family was original of the [[Lausitz|Lusatia]]. Members of his family came to the village of [[Pannwitz]] in the 14th century. From the 14th to 16th century the family held the office of [[Burggraf]] of .
Aged 12, he entered a German cadet school in Wahlstatt, near Liegnitz in Silesia, and later the cadet school at Berlin-Lichterfelde. Even before outbreak of World War I he was attracted by exhibitions of Cossack units that were organized in the neighboring towns of the Russian Empire.