The history of broadcasting began with early radio transmissions which only carried the dots and dashes of [[wireless telegraphy]]. The history of radio broadcasting (experimentally around 1905-1906, commercially around 1920-21) starts with audio (sound) broadcasting services which are broadcast through the air as radio waves from a transmitter to an antenna and, thus, to a receiving device. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast common programming, either in syndication or simulcast or both.
== Early Broadcasting around the World ===== United States ===[[Image:Frankconrad.jpg|thumb|Broadcasting pioneer Frank Conrad in a 1921 portrait.]]
One of the first signals of significant power that carried [[Human voice|voice]] and [[music]] was said to have been accomplished in 1906 by [[Reginald Fessenden]]ref when he made a [[Christmas Eve]] broadcast to ships at sea from [[Massachusetts]]. He played "[[O Holy Night]]" on his [[violin]] and read passages from the [[Bible]]. It should be noted that recent researchers have cast doubt on this story: there is little doubt that Fessenden did ground-breaking experiments with voice and music; however the Christmas Eve broadcast may be a myth. There is considerable evidence that Fessenden demonstrated voice and music long before Christmas Eve 1906.ref Despite Fessenden's successful experiments, his financial backers lost interest in the project, leaving others to take the next steps. Early on, the concept of broadcasting was new and unusual—with telegraphs, communication had been [[one-to-one (communication)|]], not . Sending out one-way messages to multiple receivers didn't seem to have much practical use.
[[Charles Herrold]] of [[San Jose, California]] sent out broadcasts as early as April 1909 from his Herrold School electronics institute in downtown San Jose, using the identification San Jose Calling, and then a variety of different [[radio call sign|call signs]] as the [[Department of Commerce]] began to regulate radio.ref His station was first called FN, then SJN (probably illegally). By 1912, the [[United States]] government began requiring radio operators to obtain licenses to send out signals. Herrold received licenses for 6XF and 6XE (a mobile transmitter) in 1916.