=== Persian empires ===
From the early 6th century BC onwards, several Persian states dominated the region, beginning with the [[Medes]] and non-Persian [[Neo-Babylonian Empire]], then their successor the [[Achaemenid Empire]] known as the first [[Persian Empire]], conquered in the late 4th century BC. by the very short-lived [[Macedonian Empire]] of [[Alexander the Great]], and then successor kingdoms such as [[History of Egypt|Ptolemaic Egypt]] and the [[Seleucid]] state in Western Asia.
After a century of hiatus, the idea of the [[Persian Empire]] was revived by the Central Asian Iranian [[Parthian Empire|Parthians]] in the 3rd century BC—and continued by their successors, the [[Sassanid Empire|Sassanids]] from the 3rd century AD. This empire dominated sizable parts of what is now the Asian part of the Middle East, and continue to influence the rest of the Asiatic and African Middle East region, until the [[Arab]] [[Islamic conquest of Persia]] in the mid-7th century CE. , [[Church of the East]] [[Christianity]] took hold in Persian ruled Mesopotamia, particularly in [[Assyria]] from the 1st Century AD onwards, and the region became a center of a flourishing [[Syriac]]-[[Assyrian people|Assyrian]] literary tradition.