- [[Caen]] < Catumagus. From Old Celtic catu- 'battle' 'fight' 'combat', Old Irish cath (gen. catho) 'combat' 'battalion' 'troop', Breton -kad /-gad, Welsh cad 'combat' 'troop'. The general meaning could be 'battlefield'
- [[Carentan]] < Carentomagus<ref>Idem , etc.</ref>
- [[Vernon, Eure|]] < Vernomagus<ref>There are other in France, but they come from Vernō 'place of the alder-trees'.</ref> 'plain of the alder-trees'. uernā 'alder-tree', Old Irish fern, Breton, Welsh gwern, dial. French verne / vergne.
In the following examples the original Gaulish toponym was replaced by the name of the tribe according to a well-known process in the Late Empire.
- [[Bayeux]] < ([[Civitas]]) Bajocassensis; former Augustodurum. '[[Forum (Roman)|]] dedicated to [[Augustus]]
- [[Evreux]] < (Civitas) Eburovicensis ; former Mediolanum
- [[Lisieux]] < (Civitas) Lexoviensis ; former Noviomagus<ref>See and [[Lexovii]].</ref> 'new market', Old Celtic noviios 'new'.
- [[Avranches]] < (Civitas) Abrincatii ; former Ingena or Legedia
There are exceptions :
- [[Coutances]] < Constantia (dedicated to Emperor [[Constantius Chlorus]]) / Cosedia
- [[Lillebonne]] < Juliobona (dedicated to [[Julius Caesar|Julius]] (Caesar) of a bona, Old Celtic bona 'foundation' or 'spring'. See [[Ratisbona]] or [[Vindobona]])
Some of these disappear to be later replaced by Normanic names such as Coriovallum / [[Cherbourg]] or Caracotinum / [[Harfleur]]. It shows that the old inhabitants who used it were expelled or flew away and were replaced by newcomers, or that they became only a small minority.
In other cases, we do not know the Pre-Normanic names of [[Honfleur]] or [[Dieppe, Seine-Maritime|]] for instance.
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The result of its evolution and way of spelling can be -ay, -ai, -ey, -é or -y in northern France and Belgium. We can find all of them in Normandy.
The preceding element is sometimes another Celtic [[substantive]], which cannot always be clearly identified or translated, because Old Celtic is ill-known. There are common archetypes like :
- (*GORNACU < *Gornāko-, [[Gaulish]] gorn 'water tank' [?] > French gord [?]),
- (*BRINNACU < *Brinnāko- / *Brennāko-, Gaulish *brinn- / *brenn- 'wet place' [?], 'marsh' [?], dial. French bren / brin 'dirty thing'). For instance
- (*SARNACU < *(I)sarnāko-, Gaulish isarnon 'iron' cf. [[Old Irish]] íarnn, Breton houarn, 'iron'),
- Andilly (< *ANDALIACU cf. [[Les Andelys|Andely]] : Andelagum 830 < *Andalāko- Gaulish *andal 'whirlpool' [?], hydronym : stream [[Andelle]], river [[:de:Andelsbach|]]. cf. Old [[Occitan]] andalhon 'to-and-fro motion of the water').
These exist everywhere in the Langue d'oïl extension area. In other regions of France and countries of Europe, they can exist with another phonetics.
Another, generally later, series is composed of masuline names that can be Gaulish (Celtic) or Latin (but the owner is a Celt with a Roman name), for example : (*MASSIACU with Mascius, Gaulish name), (*MARCELLIACU with Marcellus, Roman name), (*FLORIACU with Florius, Roman name), ([[:fr:Montaniacum|*MONTANIACU]] with Montanius, Roman name), etc.
However, the latest -acum formations are combined with a Christian or a Germanic masculine name : [[Repentigny, Calvados|]] (*REPENTINIACU with Repentinius, Christian name). The most common -acum place-name in Normandy is (More than 40 Glatigny, Glatiney, from *GLATTINIACU, Germanic name *Glatto). In the late creation, it is more difficult to make the difference between the suffix and the root : *GLATTINIACU can be interpreted as *Glattini-acu or as *Glatt-iniacu, because *-INIACU became finally a suffix.
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The main romance appellatives are the following :
* -ville, Ville- 'farm', later 'village'
* -court, Cour-, Cor- 'farm with a courtyard'
* -val, Val- 'small valley'
* -mont, Mont- 'hill'
* -mesnil, Mesnil- 'property'
=== General description ===
In France (including Normandy), the extension of -court, -ville and -mesnil (other spellings -maisnil, -ménil) corresponds generally to the Frankish and other Germanic settlements (and Anglo-Scandinavian in Normandy). That is probably the reason why the common word order is from Germanic : determinative (adjective, appellative or owner's name) + (determined) romance element, for instance : 'new village', [[Bourville]] (Bodardi villa 715) 'Bodard's farm', (Normannus de Herolcurt 1030 - 1035) 'Herulf's farm', [[Carville-Pot-de-Fer|Attemesnil]] (Ademesnil 1260) 'Adda's property', etc. It is called formula A.ref Less than 1/3 of France is entirely contained in the formula A extension area (the north).
The word order in Vulgar Latin is the opposite (the same evolution as in Celtic). Romance appellative + adjective, determining name or person's name is the dominating formula in the [[Occitan]] French toponymy and in western France. It is called formula B.ref Instead of Neuville, we find further to the south, that can be a translation from Occitan Vielanova too, or sometimes a modern name. The same for , ,ref 'new castle', further to the south , , can also be a translation of (Occitan). In Normandy, the only pays to be included totally in formula B zone is Avranchin (southwest).
However, these comments need to be qualified : -ville (as second element) extended outside the formula A zone to Avranchin, to [[Beauce]] and to the south west of France (obviously, without mentioning the very modern -ville [[Compound (linguistics)|]]s everywhere in France). On the contrary, mesnil-, mont- or val- are used as first element (according to the formula B system) in the formula A zone to the north, in the later medieval toponymic creations.
=== The local specificity ===
In the Norman toponymy, the most widespread appellative is -ville (Ville- in [[Avranchin]], South West) and we estimate up to 20% the number of Norman communes ending with -ville. The oldest recorded one (in an ancient Latin written document) is [[Bourville]] in 715 and we suppose -ville was used massively until the 11th. In contrast to -court that is the less common one (compare to neighbouring Picardy).
The most widely used -ville toponyms are the following : (Asfridr′s farm), [[Auzouville]] (Asulfr′s farm), [[Beuzeville]] (Bosi′s farm), (Koli′s farm), [[Épreville]] (Sprot′s farm), (Soti′s farm), [[Tocqueville]] (Toki′s farm), (Thorfridr′s farm), (Thori′s farm), (Thorold′s farm) and [[Grainville]] (Grimr′s farm) and with an adjective : (Briton's farm) and [[Englesqueville]] / [[Anglesqueville]] (former Englesqueville = English farm). They don't exist in France out of Normandy.
-court is usually combined with a Germanic masculine name : , with Haribertus > ; Norman surname [[Hébert]] or [[Sébécourt]], with Sigibertus > Norman and Picard surname Sébert. It almost never appears as a suffix in the western part of Normandy, but as a prefix according the combination mode formula B : Cour-, Gour-, Col-, Coul-. For instance : [[Gourfaleur]] (Courfalor 1250, *falor, name of a people), [[Coulvain]] (Laipwin 's "court"), [[Coulimer]] (Lietmar 's "court"), etc.
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The previous list of the romance appellatives does not mention -bosc / Bosc- 'wood', because it is typically Norman. It corresponds to the French word bois, that was never used this way and with such an extension in the general French toponymy. The spelling bosc (sometimes -bos(c)q or Bos- / Boc-), pronounced [bo:] or [bɔk], is specific for this Province. Despite the fact that the word bosc exists in the Occitan language (pronounced [bɔsk]), its extension in the southern French toponymy is very limited.
In Normandy, most of them are combined with a masculine name, for instance : Formula A : Auberbosc, Colbosc, Formula B : numerous [[Bosc-Roger]], [[Bosc-Renoult]], [[Bosc-Robert]], etc. Note [[Bosc-Guérard]] / [[Bosguérard]] (French 'Bois-Gérard')
Same thing for -val (f. e. [[Houlgate|Beuzeval]] with Boso / Bosi, Norman surname Beux) / Val- (f e. [[Bocasse-Valmartin|Valmartin]] with , that is the most widespread French surname until nowadays) and -mont (f. e [[Rubremont]], with Germanic name *Rotbradus) / Mont- (f. e. [[...|Montgommery]] with Germanic name Gumaricus). Note the dialectal diminutive mouchel (French monceau 'small hill') in Several le Mouchel or in Beuzemouchel ([[Bernières, Seine-Maritime|]] since 1678).
Véraval, now often misspelled as Ver-à-Val, became a -val place-name by [[popular etymology]]. It is first recorded as Warelwast in 1024 (see [[William de Warelwast]]) and we can recognize the former appellative -wast 'bad land, unfertile or uncultivated land' (now spelled -vast in the north and ga(s)t(te) in the south), the first element must be a personal name like in [[Martinvast]] (de Martin wasto ar. 1210), [[Sottevast]] (Sotewast 12th century), [[Tollevast]] (Toberwast ar. 1000 read 'Tolerwast', Tolewast 12th century), [[Reniévast]], etc. Derived word Va(s)tine (French Gâtine). Surnames Vatine, Vatinel, French Gatineau.
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=== Old Norse and Old English appellatives ===
*Tot, -tot 'property'
It is the most common suffix of Old Norse origin. There are more than 300 places ending with -tot in Normandy. Its root is Old Norse topt (compare English -, Danish -toft[e]) 'site of a house'. It can be used alone in the late formations of the 11th century : le Tot.
It can be combined with a male's name, for example : [[Yvetot]], [[Routot]], Martintot or Létantot, combined respectively with Yvo (Germanic), Hrolfr (Norse), Martin (Romance, rarely) or Lestan (<Leodstān / Leofstān, Anglo-Saxon). Compare Blactot with [[Blacktoft]] GB, Old Norse MN Blakkr.
Sometimes with a tree-name : [[Bouquetot]] (Bochetot 1179, boki 'beech-tree'), Seltot (selja '[[sallow]]'), [[Ectot-l'Auber|Ectot]] / [[Ecquetot]] (Eschetoth 1055, Esketoth 1074, eski 'ash-tree', cf. [[Eastoft]] GB, Eschetoft 12th century, Esketoft 13th century).
With another appellative or adjectiv (Old Norse or Old English) : Martot (marr/ mere '[[mere (lake)|]]', 'pond'), [[Életot]] (Esletetot 1025, sletta 'flat land' cf. [[Eslettes]] with English -s form = [[Sleights]], GB), [[Hautot-sur-Mer|Hautot]], [[Hottot-les-Bagues|Hottot]] or [[Hotot-en-Auge|Hotot]] (Old English hōh 'slope', 'incline'. Cf. [[Huttoft]] GB, Hotoft 11th century), [[Brestot]] ( Breitot 1080, breiðr 'broad', the "(Br)-es-(tot)" spelling could represent the sound [ɛ] in Old French, the way it can still be pronounced nowadays [brɛto] or [breto] cf. [[Bratoft]] GB, Breitoft 1115 ; Bretoft, [[Jönköping]], Sweden), [[Lanquetot]] (Languetot 12th century langr or lång 'long' cf. GB) etc.
*[[Bec (place name)|]], -bec = [[beck]], 'stream' or 'brook'.
It can be found alone le Bec, in the late creations like le Tot.
[[Houlbec-Cocherel|Houlbec]] 'hollow beck' (Holbec 12th century), [[Foulbec]] 'dirty beck' (Folebec 1066, cf. [[Fulbeck]] GB, Fulebec 11th century), [[Caudebec-en-Caux|Caudebec]] 'cold beck' (Caldebec 1025, cf. [[Caldbeck]] GB, Caldebeck 1060), etc.
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*Escalle, -écal- 'shelter'
From Old Norse skali, Old English scale
Touffrécal, Brecquécal, [[Écalles-Alix]] (Escales, end 12th century), [[Villers-Écalles]] (Escalis 12th century), [[Estouteville-Écalles]] (Scalis, end 12th century). cf. GB, [[Scales, South Lakeland|]]
*-gard 'yard', 'garden
From Old Norse garðr
[[Auppegard]] (Appelgart 1160, Alpegard 12th century), [[Épégard]] (Alpegard 1199, with æppel 'apple'. Cf. [[Applegarth]] GB, Appelgard 1160), Figard (Figar and Figart, with fiskr 'fish' cf. Fishguard, Wales), le Boullangard, etc.
*-gate / -gathe 'way'
Several [[Houlgate]], la Houlgate, Hôrgate 'hollow way', Hiégathe Castle. cf. GB, [[Holegate]],
ON or OE haga 'enclosure'
[[la Hague]], le Tohague (l'Estohague 1456), [[Imbleville|Étauhague]] (Estohague 1262) from stodhaga with stod 'stud' cf. [[Stodday]] (GB, Stodhae, ar. 1200), le Haguedic (or Hague-dike) with Anglo-Norse dik. cf. dial. English dike, dyke 'ditch' cf. Alano atte Haggedik, England 1327
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[[Étalondes]] (Stanelonde 1059, Stenalunda 1119, steinn 'stone' or stān > stone). [[Le Héron]] (Hairun 1025 < *hæġ-lundr, Old English hæġ)
* Dalle, -dalle, -dal, Dau- = [[dale (place name element)|]], valley
From ON dalr 'valley' or OE dæl > 'dale'
With a romance article : la Dalle, le Dallet, etc., [[Saint-Vaast-Dieppedalle|Dieppedalle]] (Diepedale 1225, Old Norse djupr or Old English dēop 'deep', cf. [[Deepdale]] GB), [[Croixdalle]] (Craudale 1253, Old English crāwe > 'crow'), [[Oudalle]] (Hulvedala 1025, ulfr 'wolf' cf. Norman surname Ouf), [[La Chapelle-Saint-Ouen|Bruquedalle]] (Brokedale 1189, Old English brōc 'brook', 'stream', cf. ), [[Daubeuf-la-Campagne]] (Dalbuoth 1010), Eurdal, Briquedalle, Louvedalle, etc.
* -beuf, Boos, rarelier -bot (Cotentin), 'barrack' 'shelter', 'village' (confusion with -by).
From Old Norse bóð (both) > English booth.
The use of -beuf / -bot corresponds to -by in GB. It explains the similar formations on both sides of the English Channel :
[[Elbeuf-sur-Andelle]] (Wellebotum 1218), [[Elbeuf]] (Wellebuoht 1070 - 81, wella 'spring'), etc. [[Criquebeuf-en-Caux]] (Cricheboum 1079, kirkja 'church'), etc. [[Lindebeuf]] (Lindebeod 1142, lindi 'lind'), [[Daubeuf-la-Campagne]] (Dalbuoth 1011), [[Daubeuf-près-Vatteville]] (Dalbodo 1025, dalr 'valley'), etc. [[Bricquebosq]] (Brichebot 1104, Brickebo 1224, later confusion with bosc 'wood'), [[Boos, Seine-Maritime|]] (Bothas 1049, cf. [[Booths]]. Old English plural -S), etc.
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Other -bœuf place-names in Normandie and in other French regions really mean 'ox' and clearly allude to slaughterhouses : [[Écorchebœuf]], [[Saint-Michel-Tubœuf|Tubœuf]], [[Tombebœuf]], [[Écornebœuf]] or [[Escornebœuf]].
* , Thuit-, -tuit '[[assart]]'
From Old Norse thveit > dial. English [[wikt:thwaite|]].
Several le Thuit, [[Bracquetuit]] (AN *brāke 'fern') cf. with ON brakni , GB or [[:dk:Bregentved|]], DK), [[Doudeville|Vautuit]] (Wautuit 12th century MN Valr or Wal), [[Notre-Dame-de-Bliquetuit|Bliquetuit]] (Belinguetuith 1025, Anglo-Saxon MN Baeling, cf. [[Badlingham]] GB, Belincgesham 1080), etc.
* Étain-, Étan-, Étenne-
From Old Norse steinn or Old English stān > stone
[[Fatouville-Grestain|Grestain]] (Grestano 1050, OE grēat 'big' (> great), cf. [[Garston, Lancashire]], Grestan 1150), [[Étainhus]] (''), Étaintot ([[Saint-Wandrille-Rançon]], Steintot 1074), Étheintot ([[Grainville-la-Teinturière]], Esteintot 1198), [[Étalondes]] (Stanelonde 1059, Stenalunda 1119), Étangval ('Stone valley', graphic attraction of the French word étang 'pond', pronounced [etã]), Mont Entenclin (Estenclif 1262), la Roche Gélétan (at [[Saint-Germain-des-Vaux]], Jallestain ar. 1200, translated into French roche = stone)
* -clives, -lif, clé-, cli-
From Old Norse klif or Old English clif
Ancient Risleclif near the [[Risle]] river, Witeclif now 'Côte Blanche' (white cliff) : old vineyard at Évreux,
[[Mesnil-Verclives|Verclives]] (Warcliva 1025), [[Clitourps]] (Clitorp 1164 - 1180), (Clivilla 1121 - 1133), [[Saint-Martin-en-Campagne|Carquelif]] (Kareclif 1226), [[Mont Entenclin]] (Estenclif 1262), Mont de [[Doville]] = Mont d'Escaulequin 1499 (Dodville 1082, Sanctus Martinus d'Escalleclif 12th century, Escaulleclif 1213, Dovilla ar. 1280), Mont Etenclin (Estenclif 1262 ) ; [[Clairefougère]] (Clivefeugeriam in 1133 and later in the 13th century.ref)
* Torp, Torps, Tourp, Tourps, -tourp, -tour
From Old Norse [[torp]] or Old English thorp 'settlement'
Several Torps, le Torp, [[le Torpt]]. [[le Torp-Mesnil]], [[Clitourps]] (Clitorp 1164, with klif 'cliff') [[Fresville|Saussetour]] (Sauxetorp 12th century), [[Théville|Sauxtour]] (Sauxetourp 1292) cf. G, Schleswig-Holstein, [[Saustrup]] (Saxtorppe 1464) or [[Saxtorf]] (Saxtorppe 1499) with Saxi masculine name 'the Saxon'.
* -hus or -hurs 'house'
From Old Norse hús or Old English hūs
[[Sahurs]] (Salhus 1024, 'house of the [[sallow]]', cf. [[Salhouse]] GB and N), [[Étainhus]].
* Crique-, -crique 'church'
From Old Norse kirkja 'church' (> dial. English [[kirk]])
[[la Crique]] (Not to be confused with the la Crique stream, that is 'creek'), [[Criquetot-l'Esneval]] (Criketot 1195), [[Criquetot-le-Mauconduit]] (Kriquetot 12th century), etc., Criquebeuf-en-Caux (Cricheboum 1079), etc. (cf. [[Kirkby]] GB), [[Yvecrique]]
*Veules, El- 'spring', 'stream'
From ON vella and OE wella
[[Veules-les-Roses]] (Wellas 1025, name of a 1 km stream, from the spring to the sea at the [[eponym]] place). English -S form cf. (GB). [[Elbeuf]] (Wellebuoth 1070 - 81), [[Elbeuf-sur-Andelle]] (Wellebotum 1218), [[Elbeuf-en-Bray]] (Wellebof 1046 - 48) cf. , GB. [[Le Havre|Rouelles]] (Rodewella 1035) cf. , GB.
*-vic, -vy 'bay', 'beach'
le Vicq, [[Le Havre|Sanvic]] (Sanwic 1035, probably from *Sandwic, vik with sand' cf. [[Sandvík]] (Faroe Islands), [[Sandwich Bay, Kent|]] (Sandwich, Kent, Sandwic 993) GB. Houlvy, [[Cap-Lévi]] (ancient Kapelwic 12th century with [[metathesis (linguistics)|]]), [[Honfleur|Vasouy]] (Wasewic, Wasuic 1035, probably OE wāse 'mud' : 'the muddy mouth' the Seine estuary ?), Brévy (with breiðr 'wide' 'broad' cf. [[Brevik]], , , , Norway, etc.), Silvy (Selevy in 1570, de selr « seal » ? ), Carry (Carrwic in 1207, with kjarr « swamp ») ou Pulvy (with píll « alder-tree » ?)
=== Old English appellatives ===
*-bourg = borough, -bury
[[Cabourg]] (Cadburgum 11th century, cf. , [[Cadborough]], GB), [[...|Wambourg]] (Wamburgum 1025, Weneborch 1147, cf. , GB), [[Cherbourg]] (Chiersburg 1070, Chieresborc 1297, Old English ċiriċe 'church')
* Bruque- / -broc = OE brōc > brook = small stream : le Fouillebroc (ancient Fulebroc), stream at [[Mortemer Abbey]] (cf. GB , e.g. [[Fulbrook, Buckinghamshire]], recorded as Fulebroc in the [[Domesday book]]), [[Bruquedalle]] (Brokedale 12th, cf. GB )
*-crot, -croc, -crocq = [[croft (land)|]]
[[Vannecrocq]] (Wanescrotum 11th century, cf. [[Walshcroft]], GB), [[Bec-de-Croc]] (Bethecroth 11th century). The spelling -C or -CQ is the result of a confusion with French croc 'fang', 'tooth'. final -C and -T are not being pronounced in French since the Middle Ages.
*-fleur 'run of water' 'river going into the sea'
flōd (> flood) or flēot (> fleet) :
[[Honfleur]] (Hunefleth 1025, Hunefloth ar. 1062), [[Barfleur]] (Barbefleth, Barbeflueth 12th century), [[Harfleur]], [[Vittefleur]], Crémanfleur, Vicqfleur, la Gerfleur (stream). Similar to the place-names in -fleet in the North of England ([[Adingfleet]], [[Marfleet]], [[Ousefleet]], etc.), generally combined with a Scandinavian personal name.
The spelling /r/, the additional final -R, is due to an "official" correctism. -fleu was believed to be the local and popular pronunciation for fleur 'flower'.
*-ham = home, -ham
[[Ouistreham]], [[Étréham]] (ōstar, Easter), , [[Huppain]], [[Surrain]], [[Hemevez]].
*-land, -lan = land, -land
[[Heuland]] with OD hoh 'decline', [[Saint-Maurice-d'Ételan|Ételan]] (Esteilant 11th century) with OE steġili 'steep'
=== Old Norse and Old English masculine names ======= Old Norse -i names ====
with Norse appellative / with Romance appellative
*Ámundi or Old Danish Amundi:ref[[Émondeville]] (Amundivilla 1269), and probably Amontot ([[Reuville]]), Amontot ([[Saint-Romain-de-Colbosc]])
*Agi or OD Aghi:ref[[Acqueville, Manche|]] (Manche, Agueville until 15th century)