The river at Kanesh (Sarımsaklı Çayı) drains into the [[Black Sea]], not (for example) [[Lake Tuz]]. "Zalpuwa" is further mentioned alongside [[Nerik]] in [[Arnuwanda I]]'s prayer. Nerik was a [[Hattic language]] speaking city which had fallen to the [[Kaskians]] by Arnuwanda's time. This portion of the prayer also mentioned [[Kammama]], which was Kaskian as of the reign of [[Arnuwanda II]]. The best conclusion is that Zalpuwa was in a region of [[Hattians|Hattian]] cities of northern central Anatolia: as were [[Nerik]], [[Hattusa]], and probably [[Sapinuwa]]. Zalpuwa was most likely, like its neighbours, founded by Hattians.
Ca. the 17th century BC, [[Uhna]] the king of Zalpuwa invaded [[Neša]], after which the Zalpuwans carried off the city's "Sius" idol. Under [[Huzziya]]'s reign, the king of Neša, [[Anitta]], invaded Zalpuwa. Anitta took Huzziya captive, and recovered the Sius idol for Neša. Soon after that, Zalpuwa became seems to have become a culturally Hittite and [[Nesian]]-speaking.
Arnuwanda's prayer implies that Zalpuwa was laid waste by Kaskians, at the same time that [[Nerik]] fell to them, in the early 14th century BC.
[[İkiztepe]] on the delta near [[Black Sea]] coast is suggested as a possible location for Zalpuwa.ref== References ==
*[http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/hitol-1-R.html The Proclamation of Anitta], CTH 1
[[Category:Former populated places in Turkey]]